Senator is the member or legislator of a senate who possessing legislative powers. Under Article 1, Section 3, Clause 5 of the United States constitution provides that no person shall be a senator of the U.S. Senate who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, the person has been nine years a citizen of the United States and who shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that state that person representing. Generally, the elected member to the United States Senate, before seated is called “senator-elect” and appointed to a seat is called a “senator-designate.”
There are two houses for the United States Congress. The upper house of the United States Congress is the Senate and the lower house is the House of Representatives. There are two senators representing each state aggregating 100 senators for the United States Congress. Here the weight of population is ignored to ensure equal representation of each state of the United States. The Chamber of United States Senate is located at Washington, D.C.
The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate and exercises voting right if there is a tie. In general practice, the President of the United States Senate occasionally presides over the Senate sessions.
The Presiding Officer of the Senate is the President Pro Tempore. The President Pro Tempore is elected by the Senate. Generally, the most experienced Senator of the majority party is selected as the President Pro Tempore of the Senate.
In 1913, the Seventeenth Amendment standardized the election to the Senate nationally. The Senators of 48 states are elected by the plurality voting system. However, the qualifying Senator candidate for the States of Georgia and Louisiana must attain the majority of votes cast. If any of the Senator candidates fails to attain the majority votes, the Senator is selected by a second election.
Article 1, Section 3 of the Unites States Constitution establishes three qualifications for a Senator:
- the candidate must be more than 30 years of age;
- the candidate must be a citizen of United States for at least nine years; and
- the candidate must be a resident of the state of representation.
The tenure of a Senator is six years. Approximately the term of one-third Senators expires in every two years. Elections to the Senate are held on the first Tuesday of November in every even-numbered year. The Senator is selected for the state as a whole.
The Senators are considered as important political icons because they are few in number, long tenure in service, represent larger constituencies, more sittings in committees, and supported with more personnel.